Nurturing Enterprises

[ an effort guided by the Economics of Permanence of Dr J. C. Kumarappa]

Chandan Sukumar Sengupta*

The Background

Nature is not a ware house of human beings. It is a realm of godly creations having automatized balances through varying levels of interactions settled in between living as well as nonliving components. Altogether all sorts of balance made the nature completely sustained and self-regulated[i].  Human beings are also one of the entity of this self-regulated realm and are not free from the factors of the regulations. Different kinds of economic efforts are also evident from the nature (refer Table 1 : Economy of Nature). Some of the entities promote development and some other entities like Parasites and Predators create a serious harm to the system.

Table 1: Economy of Nature

Types of Economy Entities in Nature
Parasitic Some animals live on other host body and depend on the host body for food and shelter.
Predatory Tiger feeds on other grazers of the locality in absence of the natural members of the food chain.
Enterprise Honey Bees promote fertilization of flowers while collecting nectar and pollen grains for manufacturing honey. The service is meant for the prosperity of the entire colony of the bee hive.
Congregation[ii] Members of a colony of Bee Hive work for the collective benefit.
Service Parental Care evident in the life of birds and mammals. Mothers generally take care of their infants without expecting any return for their parental care.

Focus on Human Society

Situation of Economic Practices in human society can be grouped in the same way as the same is evident in nature [refer table 2: Economic Entity of Human Society]. We limit our focus in the activities of our society for understanding the limiting factors of development and addressing the same for ensuring the Economics of Permanence. The theme was perpetually envisioned by Dr J. C. Kumarappa[iii], a well-known gandhian economist of post independent India.  Robbery, Malpractices and other Antisocial Elements, for instance, work against the prosperity of the society. Farmers, Artisans and Labourers on the other hand work for the prosperity of the society. They even share their benefits of the productivity with other members of the adjoining society.

Table 2: Economic Entity of Human Society

Types of Economy Entities in Nature
Parasitic Robbery and Malpractices of different kind often imply serious harm to the system.
Predatory Antisocial elements imply claim upon the society without contributing anything toward the prosperity of the society. It often bring a halt to the progressive nature of the society.
Enterprise Farmers and Artisans get involved in the productive works for ensuring a collective benefit for the entire society.
Congregation Development Organisations as well as Charitable Trust working for the prosperity of the entire society.
Service Parental Care of a mother and Welfare Services meant for nourishing a child as well as promoting the growth of a student.

A child never pay any return in cash or kind for the service of the mother that was performed during the entire period of the parental care. It will tie up a social and humanitarian bond through which the grown up child may become careful for the mother. The kind of effort thus indicate the vibrant nature of the society. These and some other human activities are perfectly regulated by the Free Will of an individual.

There exists several regulating factors leading toward the confinement of the Human Free Will toward selected economic efforts….

  1. Access to basic amenities of life; such as food, shelter, thirst, clothing etc.
  2. Secondary needs of life such as imagination, pleasure, aesthetics, creativity etc.
  3. Selecting or opting the role in nature as per the knowledge base and the mindset of the individual.
  4. Wish factor in turn limits the Free Will in certain instances.

Individual or Nation!

Everyone works for gaining some sort of benefits. Once Guru Nanak moved on toward a local market for selling out the cultivated crop for gaining a benefit. When he came to know about the miserable situation of hungry villagers through which the business envoy was passing by, Nanak[iv] ordered distribution of food to the needy ones. It has incurred a severe loss to his family. But the gain was enormous. It paved the birth of a beautiful spiritual realm in the name of Sikhism.

            There exists different levels of correlations through which beneficial gains are claimed. Some individuals work simply for their own benefit. Being a member of a joint family some other individuals extend support to the entire group. Social leaders, reformers, research scholars often expand their efforts for the benefit of the adjoining society or even for the benefit of the entire mankind. In some instances they may lose their life while experimenting.

Immunity of the Economy

Healthy and well-nourished society remain so for a longer time with progressive growth only when it remains protected. We cannot say stop to any antisocial elements or oppressors, but we may ensure the self-protective as well as social-protective measures to make the entire society immune to the evil forces. It will be a kind of guiding force upon which people living in a close proximity may work out a comprehensive plan for considering joint as well as collective actions.

System immunity [v]is also guided by the active nature of the law enforcement units of a society. A healthy system will in turn ensure the non-corruptive nature of the law enforcement units. Efficient law enforcement unit and awakened social localized groups may jointly imply adequate immunity to the adjoining society.

Promoting the Enterprise

Efforts of development organisations will be focused adequately toward promoting the enterprise of human society for ensuring progressive growth of farmers and artisans. Promotional activities may be of different kinds…..

  1. Enhancing skills and competence of the work forces involved in the economics of enterprise.
  2. Preserving the beneficial aspects of farmers and artisans.
  3. Ensuring social security of farmers and artisans through promotional schemes of insurance and calamity benefits.
  4. Easy as well as ensured access of farmers and artisans to the basic amenities like food, medication, shelter etc.
  5. Establishing and strengthening Industrial Training Centers of rural out pockets.

            Several other initiatives may be enlisted for ensuring the promotion of the functioning of the enterprise through prominent actors like farmers and artisans. For the adequate functioning of the entire society it will ensure the timely and adequate scope of communications. There are several means of communications functioning in the society. Some more can be added for ensuring two way communication between land and laboratory, between patients and doctor, between students and teacher and so on.


Networked Communications[vi]

            We often communicate with others for various reasons. Reasons may vary from individual level up to the level of the entire society. It may be for some individual gain or may be for the gain of the entire community. Without interacting with other individual a life process, or problems related to the life process may remain un-attended. It may lead toward a chaos of the demand and supply mechanism. A doctor, for instance, may remain unexplored without the approach of fellow patients. Similar the case in between communications of students and teachers, advocates and clients, shop keepers and customers etc.

            Communication is therefore an essential part of the human society through which different entities of a society come closure to each other. It even make the social functioning appropriate as well as time tested. A farmer can communicate the entity of the immediate requirement for sorting out any problem. Reliance upon mass communication media will ensure a definite progress in time. Communication even bring people together for raising their voice jointly upon any issue. Proper and timely communication even ensure the birth of a nuclear family in the society. Access to information will raise the level of the community consciousness that in turn will increase the levels of the understanding of people.

Social Standards

                        Public recognition of any individual in society indicates the importance of the person in society. Doctors and teachers generally receive higher recognition because of the importance of their services. Services of farmers and artisans are equally important in our society because of their involvement in the productivity. A conscious society can recognize the importance of the members involved in the economy of enterprises. Only conscious members of a family can think about the well beings of a farmer in the society. Such consciousness of people in turn will ensure the social security of the members involved in the economy of enterprises.

            A life process in society, therefore, must not be standardized simply in terms of dress and wealth. It may be standerdised properly in terms of efforts and knowledge. Efforts and knowledge are the two important wheels of the collective progress of a society. Standard of living of the rural society may be enhanced by ensuring some of the basic facilities like sanitation, housing, medication, and access to education, access of information etc. For enhanced efforts an expanded Knowledge base will play a definitive role in making a society developed and sustained one.

Further Readings

  1. Zachariah, Developing India: an intellectual and social history, c.1930–1950 (2005), esp. chapter 3, ‘Towards a political philosophy of the village community’
  2. Zachariah, ‘Interpreting Gandhi: J. C. Kumarappa, modernity and the East’, in Culture and democracy: papers from the cultural studies workshops, ed. T. Guhathakurta (1999. Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta)
  3. Chaos in Nation Formation: Case of Punjab, by T.G. Jacob, Odyssey, 1990. (out of print)
  4. Cinema in Focus: Black and White of Cinema in India.(includes writings by Bunuel, Rocha, Solanas, Gettino, Espinosa, Sanjines) by Pranjali Bandhu. Odyssey,1992. (out of print)
  5. Dancing to Global Capital: Media in India, by Pranjali Bandhu, Vikas Adhyayan Kendra, 2001. (out of print). Hindi translation – Bhartiya Prasar Madhyam. Videshi Punji ki Gulami ki Daur, 2006. Translated by Vijay Prakash. (Copies available with the publisher Samvad, Mumbai and Meerut. Contact address I-499, Shastri Nagar, Meerut 250004. (E-mail:
  6. Economic and Political Weekly; v.40 no.52 (24 December 2005)
  7. India: Development and Deprivation. Neocolonial Transformation of the Economy in a Historical Perspective, by T.G. Jacob, Mass Line Press,1985. (out of print)
  8. . Kumarappa Birth Centenary Committee, Kumarappa Centenary Souvenir (1992)
  9. Kumarappa, Joseph C.; Trad. di Marinella Correggia (2011). Economia di condivisione. Come uscire dalla crisi mondiale (in Italian). Pisa: Centro Gandhi Edizioni. ISBN 978-88-7500-029-5.
  10. Kundalia, Vandana. Economics of Nonviolence; in reference to Mahatma Gandhi, J.K.Mehta and Acharya Mahaprajna.
  11. Lindley, Mark (2007). J. C. Kumarappa Mahatma Gandhi’s Economist. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7991-280-5.
  12. Vinaik, J. C. Kumarappa and his quest for world peace (1956)
  13. Vinaik, The Gandhian crusader – a biography of Dr. J. C. Kumarappa (1987)
  14. Madya Keralam (Alcohol and Kerala) by T.G. Jacob, 2003. (Copies available with Haritham Books, Convent Road, Calicut)
  15. National Question in India: Communist Party of India (CPI) Documents 1942-47. Edited by T.G. Jacob and Introduced by K. Venu. Odyssey, 1988. (out of print)
  16. Rajeswar, Rao P. (1991). Great Indian Patriots. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. ISBN 978-81-7099-288-2.
  17. K. George and G. Ramachandran, The economics of peace: the cause and the man (1952)
  18. Solomon Victus, Jesus and mother economy (2007. ISPCK, New Delhi) [ISBN 978-81-7214-977-2]
  19. Solomon Victus, Religion and Eco-Economics of Dr J. C. Kumarappa – Gandhism redefined (2003. ISPCK, New Delhi) [ISBN 81-7214-711-2]
  20. Tales of Tourism from Kovalam, by T.G. Jacob. Odyssey, 1998. (out of print)
  21. M. Govindhu and D. Malghan, ‘Building a creative freedom: J. C. Kumarappa and his economic philosophy’ (September 2005), to appear in the Economic and Political Weekly [and available at]
  22. War and National Liberation. Communist Party of India (CPI) Documents 1939-45. Edited and Introduced by P. Bandhu and T. G. Jacob. Odyssey,1988. (out of print)
  23. Wayanad: Misery in an Emerald Bowl: Essays on the Ongoing crisis in the Cash Crop Economy- Kerala, by T.G. Jacob, Vikas Adhyayan Kendra, 2006. (out of print).

*A Graphic Designer, System Admin and a Programmer having different live projects under consideration. Some of the successful designings are in Library Automation, Office Automation, Content Management System, E Learning and System Integration. Looking after the Informatics Division of Some Development Organisations and Educational Institutions.

Endnotes …..

[i]  adjusting, ruling, or governing itself without outside interference; operating or functioning without externally imposed controls or regulations: a self-regulating economy; the self-regulating market.  Thus Nature gradually improves her various breeds through the continued action of a self-regulating mechanism. At the Deathbed of Darwinism ; Eberhard Dennert.

[ii] The Latin root of congregation, which is greg, meaning “flock,” easily becomes congregare, meaning “to gather together,” and finally congregationen, giving the current meaning of “a group.” The meaning took on a religious quality when 16th Century Protestants took it to refer to the church itself, then refining it to mean church members. If you’re not a churchgoer, you might still refer to your friends who show up to watch football as a congregation.  A congregation is a large gathering of people, often for the purpose of worship.

The term congregation may refer to:

  • Local church, a Christian organization meeting in a particular place for worship
  • Congregation (Roman Curia), an administrative body of the Roman Catholic Church
  • Congregation (Catholic), a grouping of religious institutes or a religious institute in which only simple vows, not solemn vows, are taken
  • Congregation (Jewish), known in Hebrew as a kehilla
  • Qahal, an Israelite organizational structure often translated as congregation
  • Congregation, often used as an alternate term for a synagogue or its members in a similar vein as a Christian congregation
  • Congregation (university), an assembly of senior members of a university
  • The general audience in a ward in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

[iii] J. C. Kumarappa (born Joseph Chelladurai Cornelius) (4 January 1892 – 30 January 1960) was an Indian economist[1] and a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi. A pioneer of rural economic development theories, Kumarappa is credited for developing economic theories based on Gandhism – a school of economic thought he coined “Gandhian economics. On his return to India Kumarappa published an article on the British tax policy and its exploitation of the Indian economy. He met Gandhi in 1929. At Gandhi’s request he prepared an economic survey of rural Gujarat, which he published as A Survey of Matar Taluka in the Kheda District (1931). He strongly supported Gandhi’s notion of village industries and promoted Village Industries Associations.

[iv] Sri Guru Nanak Dev ji was born in 1469 in Talwandi, a village in the Sheikhupura district, 65 kms. west of Lahore. His father was a village official in the local revenue administration. As a boy, Sri Guru Nanak learnt, besides the regional languages, Persian and Arabic.  When Guru Nanak Dev ji were 12 years old his father gave him twenty rupees and asked him to do a business, apparently to teach him business. Guru Nanak dev ji bought food for all the money and distributed among saints, and poor. When his father asked him what happened to business? He replied that he had done a “True business” at the place where Guru Nanak dev had fed the poor, this gurdwara was made and named Sacha Sauda.

[v] The immune system protects the body from possibly harmful substances by recognizing and responding to antigens. Antigens are substances (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, or bacteria. Nonliving substances such as toxins, chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles (such as a splinter) can also be antigens. The immune system recognizes and destroys, or tries to destroy, substances that contain antigens.

[vi]  Networked Communications enabled through a computer network or data network is a telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, networked computing devices exchange data with each other using a data link. The connections between nodes are established using either cable media or wireless media. The best-known computer network is the Internet. Network computer devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network nodes. Nodes can include hosts such as personal computers, phones, servers as well as networking hardware. Two such devices can be said to be networked together when one device is able to exchange information with the other device, whether or not they have a direct connection to each other.