Report of Workshop



All of us are aware that Mahatma Gandhi started the All India Village Industries Association with the aim of reviving and revitalizing village-based industries apart from production of Khadi as an important component of the whole programme of village rejuvenation. Mahatma realized the significance of Village Industries as the cornerstone of the Indian economy. For accomplishing the goal of an ideal economy, Dr. J. C. Kumarappa joined hands with him.

To pay tribute to the life and work of Dr. J. C. Kumarappa, Centre of Science for Villages (CSV) planned year long activities to celebrate his 125th birth anniversary. To commence the birth anniversary celebrations, CSV organized a three day long workshop in collaboration with Institute of Gandhian Studies, Wardha and Gandhi Smriti and Darshan Samiti, New Delhi. The comprehensive report of the workshop reflects the plan and programmes of CSV and allied organizations for paying tribute to Dr. Kumarappa.

We expect active participation of Development Organizations, Artisans, Volunteers, and also people from all walks of life in the implementation of the proposed yearlong programmes.

         Dr. Soham Pandya

Executive Director

Centre of Science for Villages, Wardha

7th January 2017

The Background

Pre independent India experienced remarkable shift in its approach to resolve it’s the then prevalent problems of poverty, unemployment, anti people economical policies and practices. A concept from Dr. J. C. Kumarappa convinced Mahatma Gandhi to change the course of constructive works from merely Cotton and Khadi towards a broader spectrum of small scale and village industries Dr. Kumarappa started implementing his dream under the active guidance of Mahatma Gandhi at AIVIA located in Maaganwadi, Wardha in the year 1936.

Now question arises, why these programs and policies were not addressed the way it should have been done? CSV has a firm belief that the programs takenup by Dr. Kumarappa has potentials to address modern day problems of rural and urban youths. Therefore the organisation took forward the concepts and proposals of Dr. Kumarappa at ground level. Keeping these things in mind CSV planned to organize a workshop for planning yearlong programs and activities.


A: Centre of Science for Villages:

Centre of Science for Villages (CSV) started functioning in 1976 by its founder Chairman and Director Late Dr. Devendra Kumar from the premises of Maganwadi in Wardha from where Mahatma Gandhi began the “All India Village Industries Association” (AIVIA) in 1934 and Dr. J. C. Kumarappa gave shape to Gandhian concepts of Rural Economy. The idea behind the centre was to establish a place, which could act as a centre for transfer of technology and to establish a bridge between the portals of National Laboratories and doors of the Rural Mud Huts. Vision and Mission of Centre of Science for Villages:

  • To work towards a holistic and futuristic development of the small community based decentralized village economy.
  • To develop and demonstrate appropriate rural technologies which are ecologically sound, economically viable and socially just.
  • To develop the villages and arrest the erosion of its talents by promoting rural non-farm activities.
  • To promote interaction between Science & Technoligy Labs & village mud huts, to enable the scientists to interact with the rural realities and learn from the accumulated knowledge in the village tradition.
  • To provide a forum to rural innovation with specialists and experts in science and technology, to provide them with necessary Science & Technology inputs to optimize their innovated processes and products.
  • To collect and document scientific and technological information for rural areas, by establishing a good database and information system and disseminate the same through publications.
  • To undertake adaptive Research & Development to mould the available technology according to the local condition and skill level and Train people who could take it to the villages.
  • Since last four decades CSV is working on Rural Technologies, specially doing
  • Research
  • Field Trials
  • Field Extension
  • Networking
  • Training
  • Publications and
  • Policy Intervention


B: Institute of Gandhian Studies:

The Institute of Gandhian Studies (IGS) is an educational and public charitable institution that has been set-up as one of the commemorative projects of the Jamnalal Bajaj Centenary Year. It was established to create and offer facilities to study the life, thought and methods of Gandhi, and to learn lessons that can be of value in addressing the problems of the present. The objectives of the Institute identify the growing relevance of Gandhi and the need for providing opportunities for the study and application of his thoughts and methods.

More than six decades have passed since Gandhi fell to the bullets of an assassin. But every year in these decades has only heightened the global awareness of the dimensions and the meaning of his message. A very real threat to survival is threatening humanity to look for alternative to the paths that have led it to the brink of extinction. Violence and war seem to have become counter-productive as instruments for settling differences or resolving conflicts. Giant strides in science and technology have no doubt added to the knowledge and power at the disposal of man, but not to peace of mind in the individual or harmony in society, nor to the liquidation of want and poverty, poor health standards and ignorance.

Sophistication in technology has not led to freedom, but have focused attention on the potential for increasing disparities; for centralization and concentration of power, the danger of divorcing the processes of production from the personality and creativity of the individual human being; the profligate and thoughtless depletion of non-replaceable natural resources, causing irreparable damage to and imbalance in the eco-system, in turn posing a threat to the survival of man and the natural and social ethos of the planet. The relentless pursuit of material goals has led to a grave crisis in the psyche of the individual and society.

C: Gandhi Smriti and Darshan Samiti

Gandhi Smriti and Darshan Samiti (GSDS) was formed in September 1984 by the merger of Gandhi Darshan at Rajghat and Gandhi Smriti, at 5, Tees January Marg as an autonomous body, and is functioning under the constructive advice and financial support from the Ministry of Culture, Government of India. The Prime Minister of India is its Chairperson and it has a nominated body of senior Gandhians and representatives of various government departments to guide it in its activities. The basic aim and objective of the Samiti is to propagate the life, mission and thought of Mahatma Gandhi through various socio-educational and cultural programmes.


About Dr J C Kumarappa

Dr J. C. Kumarappa: A Biographical Note

4 January 1892

Kumarappa was born on 4 January 1892 in Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu and baptized Joseph Chelladurai Cornelius. Cornelius was the English name taken up by his paternal grandfather, an Anglican clergyman, and which was also used by his father, who was an officer in the Public Works Department of the Government of Madras. His mother, Mrs. Esther Rajanayagam, who had a strong influence on him, hailed from the well known family of poet Vedanayagam Sastriar. She was a devout Christian woman who tried to practice the Christian tenet of “love thy neighbour” all her life and motivated her children to do the same.

1918-19 Joseph qualified himself as an incorporated accountant in London and started practising there in 1918-19 in a British firm.
1927 In 1927 Kumarappa visited USA, where his eldest brother resided. There he first took a degree in Business Administration from Syracuse University and then joined Columbia University to study Public Finance. During this time he was invited to give talks on India by church and other organisations.

In 1929 Joseph Chelladurai returned to Bombay and restarted his auditing work. He also began to look around for a publisher for his thesis on Public Finance that dealt with British exploitation of India through its taxation policy, which was broadly on the same lines as nationalist writers like Dadabhoi Naoroji, R.C. Dutt, K.T. Shah and many British critics of imperialist drain from India.

During this time Kumarappa met Mahatma Gandhi and just after the first meeting he started working with Mahatma. Request of Mahatma to join Gujarat Vidyapeeth was gladly accepted by Dr. Kumarappa.

1930 Students and teachers of Gujarat Vidyapeeth conducted a survey of Matar Taluka in Kheda district of Gujarat. While he was engaged in this survey Gandhiji started on the Dandi March as the first stage of his Salt Satyagraha. As both he and his secretary, Mahadev Desai, got arrested, the Navajivan Trust, which carried out all publishing activities on behalf of Gandhi, invited Joseph to edit Young India in their absence. This became his regular responsibility whenever Gandhi and Desai were not available.
1931 Kumarappa was sentenced to jail for the first time for his seditious articles in Young India.
1934 He had arguments with Gandhi regarding what he felt was his overemphasis on Khadi to the neglect of the need of resuscitating the other village industries for rural reconstruction. Tagore too had criticized Gandhi on this count. For this strong conviction he was chosen by Gandhi to organise the All-India Village Industries Association when it was formed in 1934.
1933-34 Gandhiji started the Gram Udyog Sangh with the aim of reviving and revitalising other village-based industries apart from cloth production as an important component of the whole programme of village rejuvenation, which he wanted to be the cornerstone of the Indian economy and polity. In this aim, Kumarappa was one with him.

A monthly journal called Gram Udyog Patrika (GUP) was started in English and Hindi to expound the economics of village industries and to publish reports of ongoing work and research. GUP has many reports by Kumarappa on village industries from the various parts of India that he visited, like Kashmir and Punjab.

1939-40 The A.I.V.I.A. held several meetings in this connection and Kumarappa was called to survey conditions in some of the provinces and draw up reports with concrete suggestions for the development of village industries there. Important and voluminous reports were written under his supervision on the village industries of the Central Provinces and of the N.W.F.P. in 1939 and 1940.
1946 The interim government was formed prior to transfer of power, Dr. Kumarappa was offered a ministership by Sardar Patel, but he refused. Earlier too he had refused membership of the Congress Working Committee because he felt that his work in the A.I.V.I.A. was more important and that he could serve the masses better through this work. He would prefer to try and influence the government in the desired direction from outside rather than become part of it.
1947 Kumarappa agreed with Gandhi about the need for merging all the autonomous organisations he had created for constructive work under one Board of Management. These were in the various spheres of spinning and weaving, other village industries, agriculture, education, Harijan and Adivasi service, health, women’s uplift and cow protection. These organisations had come up at different points of time and there was a lack of much needed co-ordination in their functioning.

Kumarappa had served on the Economic Programme Committee appointed in November 1947 by the A.I.C.C. and chaired by Nehru to indicate the broad guidelines for the economy. Its report was submitted in January 1948 and presented a diluted version of Gandhi’s and Kumarappa’s views on a largely decentralized and village industries based economy. This report was later in the year adopted by the government as its Industrial Policy Statement.


1948 In February 1948, the Congress appointed an Agrarian Reforms Committee, which was headed by Kumarappa. Its report submitted in July 1949 recommended land reforms, no private ownership of land and many other radical measures for restructuring land relations and land use. The recommendations of this Committee were pigeon-holed by the government, and Kumarappa went about setting up Pannai Ashram in Seldoh village near Wardha with the idea of undertaking a model implementation of the recommendations made in the Report. In this he was joined by Mira Behn and some other Sarvodaya workers.
1952 In 1952, he founded along with Gora (Goparaju Ramachandra Rao), an atheist rural social worker from Andhra Pradesh, an organisation, Arthik Samata Mandal (Society for Economic Equality), which was in favour of redistribution of land by means of non-violent pressure on the landlords by the landless, and of Swadeshi as an economic policy. In addition, it propagated Gramraj, the concept of partyless democracy, the idea that local village councils could and should work without political parties and organised ‘Food for All’ campaigns.
1955 By 1955 Kumarappa’s health was in so poor a condition that he had to give up his work at Pannai Ashram. He now set up his residence in Gandhi Niketan Ashram in T. Kallupatti near Madurai and started a training institute in village crafts there. He also continued to write on various national issues, particularly on the Community Development Programme of the government being undertaken with American aid and expertise, and on the Bhoodan movement initiated by Shri Vinoba Bhave. He took a dim view of both as not helping to really solve the agrarian issues of the country.
1960 He was invited for a public meeting on the evening of 30th January, the day of Gandhi’s martyrdom. But he replied that in the 12 years since Gandhi’s departure there had not been even an inch of progress in the country along Gandhian lines, so “How do we deserve praying for him on that day?” This thought, that we have not proved ourselves worthy disciples of the 20th century apostle of peace, seems to have weighed him down so much on that day that he passed away on the night of 30th January.

Themes of the Workshop

Following themes were covered during the three day long Workshop…

  • Understanding the economy of Permanence?
  • Appropriate Technology (AT): Role of AT in Agricultural Economy.
  • Nurturing Artisans: Strengthening a Time Tested Engineering Skills for Villages.
  • Energy: Meeting Energy Demand of Rural Technologies in Future.
  • Establishing proper coordination Among Grass-root efforts and National Laboratories and Institutions.
  • Finalizing the Activities to be undertaken during and after 125th Birth Anniversary of Dr. J. C. Kumappaji…
    1. Cycle Yatras (Rally) in adjoining villages highlighting prospects of village economy to distressed farming families.
    2. Formation and Continuation of study circles on the life and works of Dr. J. C. Kumarappa.
    3. Publications of popular and thematic articles, journals and books.
    4. Formation and continuation of Web Portal dedicated for the purpose of Information Dissemination at the global perspective.
    5. Networking with likeminded individuals and institutions for making the efforts of CSV as successful Endeavour.
    6. Extending support to 125 new village based tiny and small enterprises.
    7. Finalizing the draft recommendations of Programs and Policy Statements Meant for selected departments of State and Central Government.

Proceedings of the workshop

Maganwadi, Wardha was the place from where Mahatma Gandhi initiated the work of “All India Village Industries Association” (AIVIA) in 1934. Dr. J. C. Kumarappa, Secretary AIVIA, gave a definite shape to Gandhian concept of rural industrialization and village economy. As a mark of respect to him “Centre of Science for Villages”, Dattapur, Wardha, “Institute of Gandhian Studies”, Gopuri, Wardha and “Gandhi Smriti and Darshan Samiti”, New Delhi has planned yearlong programs to mark 125th Birth Anniversary of Dr. Kumarappa. The first program was celebrated in the form of a three day long workshop.

The workshop was attended by more than 200 participants of 33 institutions.

Activity Report: Day 1

Wednesday The 4th January 2017
Introduction of Program Dr. Soham Pandya


Life of Dr. J. C. Kumarappa Shri Bharat Mahoday

IGS, Wardha

Mission of Dr. J. C. Kumarappa Chandan Sukumar Sengupta

Manager, IECIT

Relevance of Dr. J. C. Kumarappa in Present Context Shri Basant Bhai
Economy of Permanence and Prospect of Research in This Field Prof. Nishikant Mukherji

Vice President, CSV

Mahatma Gandhi and Today’s Youth: Gandhi’s Reflections in Media Shri Sanjay Arvikar

Asst. Director (M&C)

Initiatives of MGIRI for Promoting Rural and Cottage Industries Dr. Prafulla Kale

Director, MGIRI

Initiatives of Organizations in the Context of Economy of Permanence Shri Apurva Bajaj

Trustee, KJBF, Mumbai

Spiritual Aspects of Economy Shri Gautam Bajaj

Pramdham Ashram, Pownar

Organic Farming Dr. Tarak Kate

Dharamitra, Wardha

Natural Farming M. N. Khadse


Technologies for Rural Application Dr. K. K. Sharma,

Principal Scientist

MCRC, Chennai

Cotton to Khadi: Decentralized Source of Economy for Women N. Khallarkar

Khadi Technologist

Our present day need Vivekanand Mathane

Coordinator, RKSS

Processing of Biomass: A System Approach Dr. Soham Pandya


Activity Report: Day 2


Thursday The 5th January 2017
Prospects and Problems of Artisans in Modern Times Dr. Soham Pandya

Director, CSV

Focus on Economy of Permanence of Dr. J. C. Kumarappa Siby K. Joseph

Dean, IGS

Technological Intervention in Village Industries and Agriculture Dr. Chakrapani,

Manager, MCRC, Chennai

Experience Sharing on Small Scale and cottage Industries Mahendra Upadhyay

CEO, Naraya Chuna

Entrepreneurship Development: Scope and Challenges for Youths Devendra Singh,

Field Officer BYST, Wardha

MGIRI Initiatives and Case Studies: Solar Powered Spinning Unit Dr. S. P. Mishra,

MGIRI, Wardha

Hurdles in Establishing Rural Enterprises and its Solution Dr. Sugumaran,

Sr Scientist, MCRC, Chennai

Prosperity and Need of Village Enterprises: Artisanal Initiatives Shri Basant Bhai,

Sarvodaya Activist, Bihar

Prospects and Problems of Artisans in Modern Times: Open Session for Experience Sharing Participants of Workshop

Activity Report: Day 3

Friday The 6th January 2017
Renewable Sources of Energy Dr. Tarak Kate

Dharamitra, Wardha

Exploring applications for meeting Energy Requirement Dr. K. K. Sharma

Principal Scientist

MCRC, Chennai

Scope of Innovation in the Field of Renewable Energy Chandan Sukumar Sengupta

Manager, IECIT

Shifting from Fossil Fuel to Clean Energy Prof  Nishikant  Mukherji

Vice President, CSV

Attaining Self Sufficiency in Terms of Energy Requirement: Off the Grid Bharat Mahodaya

Director, IGS Wardha

Cow in Our Economy Bhavini Bahan Parekh,

Paramdhan Ashram, Pownar

Spiritual Aspects of Energy Pravina Bahan Desai,

Nivedita Nilayam, Wardha

Open Discussion for Formation of The Network of Artisans, Entrepreneurs and Farmers and Policy Intervention for State and Central Government Participants of Workshop

Major points discussed:

Following major points were discussed during three day long participatory workshop

  1. Participants understood the possibilities of using local resources, local traditional but scientific knowledge and skills for fulfilling local needs by practicing economy of enterprise. It included agriculture, processing of forest product (NTFP), animal husbandry and village industries.
  2. Participant Organization explored possibilities of technology intervention for enhancing skill and capabilities of traditional artisans, entrepreneurs and farmers.
  3. Research and Innovations: Team members also workout through discussion the scope of innovation and research in the field of developmental economics.
  4. Increasing demand of Power supply: In the workshop it was proposed by some of the participants that a village can be put off the main grid and energy demand of small and cottage industries can be fulfilled using alternate sources of energy such as solar, wind, biogas and bio-fuels by modifying traditional instruments and machines.
  5. Formation of Network: Organizers of Workshop initiated the formation of a network of Research & Development institutions, Developmental Organizations, Neo Entrepreneurs, Artisans and Farmers meant for strengthening and enhancing their skills and potentials. The concept of Networking was accepted by youths, participating organization and neo entrepreneurs.
  6. Policy Intervention: CSV coined a set of policy interventions meant for circulating amongst policy makers of state and central government.

Views of Dr. J. C. Kumarappa on different themes

Economy of Permanence

Nature is not a ware house of human beings. It is a realm of godly creations having automatized balances through varying levels of interactions settled in between living as well as nonliving components. Altogether all sorts of balance made the nature completely sustained and self-regulated[i].  Human beings are also one of the entities of this self-regulated realm and are not free from the factors of the regulations. Different kinds of economic efforts are also evident from the nature (refer Table 1: Economy of Nature). Some of the entities promote development and some other entities like Parasites and Predators create a serious harm to the system.

Table 1: Economy of Nature

Types of Economy Entities in Nature
Parasitic Some animals live on other host body and depend on the host body for food and shelter.
Predatory Predators such as Tiger, feeds on other grazers of the locality in absence of the natural members of the food chain.
Enterprise Honey Bees promote fertilization of flowers while collecting nectar and pollen grains for manufacturing honey. The service is meant for the prosperity of the entire colony of the bee hive.
Congregation[ii] Members of a colony of Bee Hive work for the collective benefit.
Service Parental Care evident in the life of birds and mammals. Mothers generally take care of their infants without expecting any return for their parental care.

Focus on Human Society

Situation of Economic Practices in human society can be grouped in the same way as the groups evident in nature [refer table 2: Economic Entity of Human Society]. We limit our focus in the activities of our society for understanding the limiting factors of development and addressing the same for ensuring the Economics of Permanence. The theme was perpetually envisioned by Dr J. C. Kumarappa[iii], a well-known gandhian economist of post independent India. Robbery, Malpractices and other Antisocial Elements, for instance, work against the prosperity of the society. Farmers, Artisans and Labourers on the other hand work for the prosperity of the society. They even share their benefits of the productivity with other members of the adjoining society.

Table 2: Economic Entity of Human Society

Types of Economy Entities in Nature
Parasitic Robbery and Malpractices of different kind often imply serious harm to the system. Share holders claiming benefit from a productivity without contributing anything.
Predatory Antisocial elements and Oppressors imply claim upon the society without contributing anything toward the prosperity of the society. It often brings a halt to the progressive nature of the society.
Enterprise Farmers and Artisans get involved in the productive works for ensuring a collective benefit for the entire society.
Congregation Development Organisations as well as Charitable Trust working for the prosperity of the entire society.
Service Parental Care of a mother and Welfare Services meant for nourishing a child as well as promoting the growth of a student.

A child never pays any return in cash or kind for the service of the mother that was performed during the entire period of the parental care. It will tie up a social and humanitarian bond through which the grown up child may become careful for the mother. The kinds of effort thus indicate the vibrant nature of the society. These and some other human activities are perfectly regulated by the Free Will of an individual.

There exist several regulating factors leading toward the confinement of the Human Free Will toward selected economic efforts….

  1. Access to basic amenities of life; such as food, shelter, thirst, clothing etc.
  2. Secondary needs of life such as imagination, pleasure, aesthetics, creativity etc.
  3. Selecting or opting the role in nature as per the knowledge base and the mindset of the individual.
  4. Wish factor in turn limits the Free Will in certain instances.


Need Based Policy Recommendations

An open discussion went on the existing policies of the Government and it has been recommended that it should be made more people friendly through incorporation of some of the recommendations being put forwarded by the fellow participants of the Dr. J C Kumarappa 125th Anniversary Workshop.

Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises: Present Day Context

Policy of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises continued to give increasing importance to small-scale enterprises to serve the objective of employment generation.

Present day policy emphasizes only supply side mechanism for tackling the problem of unemployment. Definition of Women Entrepreneur, as well as that of Village and Cottage Industries is partially focused on the social and economic context of the rural community. The view is maintained that the key areas in handicrafts that could contribute towards a faster pace of rural industrialisation are production and marketing. Facilitating production and marketing through government intervention is still a lop sided affair. Schemes for training and design development and for production and marketing assistance were the subject of encouragement.

Considering the importance of this sector from the point of view of employment and exports, it was also proposed in a broader way to provide an integrated development thrust to this sector for expanding and strengthening the production base. It was also partially prepared to enhance the potential as well as scalability of rural employment and gain of income through practicing crafts as an enterprise-economic activity. Mechanism of availing necessary inputs duly required for quality improvement and effective marketing support to rural industrial practices were poorly networked, because of which reaching the farthest corner of the society remained a dream. Marketing support both internal and overseas through state support is still an achievable point through liberal and people friendly policy interventions. Efforts to preserve the traditional richness of the crafts and to engage the hereditary skills of the craftsperson to suit modern requirements remained an unrealized effort.

Recommendations on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises

  • The investment ceiling in plant and machinery for small-scale industries should be raised up to Rs. 1 Crore.  and that for ancillary units up to Rs. 1.5 crore.
  • Investment ceiling for tiny units located in rural areas should be Rs. 20 lakhs.
  • Preparing a list of items duly allocated for Small Scale Cottage Industries and providing the same to Development Organisations working for Village level enterprises. The enlisted items should be reserved for exclusive manufacture in small- scale sector.
  • Promoting and encouraging Small Scale Cottage Industries through Umbrella Programme in collaboration with Financial Institutions and Development Organisations and implementing the same in a war footing for attaining the desired coverage within five consecutive years.
  • Incorporating Technology Intervention Programmes of different Development Organisations working on the same principle. Establishing District Level Core Support agencies and linking up the same with State Level Facilitation Centres for ensuring proper technology dissemination programme aiming toward the skill enhancement process of people involved in the Small Scale Cottage Industries.
  • Mobilising easy access to Credit facilities through Core Banking Mechanism aiming finally toward minimizing the hurdles toward the attainment of sustainable development goals [iv].
  • Encouraging Women Entrepreneurs through liberal policies of taxation and market support.
  • Developing local market hub for keeping and popularizing products coming out of the local areas.
  • Promoting Product Diversification [v] through Collaborative efforts of Research and Development Organisations of different locations of the Country.
  • Linking up different Organisation working in the field of Small Scale Cottage Industries, Rural Industrialisation, Rural Housing as well as in Technology Intervention through establishing Nodal Centres, Focal Centres and Local Support as well as Catalytic Agencies.

[Focus: Ministry of Micro, Small Scale and Medium Enterprises ]

Policy regarding Bio Fuel and Plantation of Non Edible Oil Seed Plants:

Observing the immense potential of Rural Areas of the country following aspects should be incorporated in the policy document for ensuring the appropriate use of New and Renewable sources of energy aiming finally toward the attainment of Self Sufficiency in terms of Energy….

  • Providing a list of area specific plant varieties bearing Non Edible Oil Seeds.
  • Providing state support for the plantation of plants bearing non edible oil seeds in the lands remaining unused for a longer time span. The same effort is also considered most important for ensuring appropriate land utilization programme.
  • Linking up the plantation of useful plants in the forest land and Joint forest Management Initiatives for extending support to the local user group. Formation of the Close User Group for exploring the local resources for Economic Exploration.
  • Exploring possible sources and scope of technology intervention aiming toward industrial manufacturing of Bio Diesel from farm waste materials. Extending support services to development organization and/or Voluntary Organisation towards accomplishing the same effort.
  • Formation of Local level energy recycling unit for meeting the energy demand of the local unit. Designing an integrated approach based upon the availability of resources for enabling a village to move toward remaining off the grid in terms of energy consumption as well as industrial practices.
  • Redefining the exemption strategy on Bio Fuel is an immediate requisite for promoting the effort of people maintaining willingness to participate in exploring the sources of Bio Fuel.

[Focus: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy]

Policy Recommendations for Agriculture

The widely discussed area was that of the agriculture. A large number of farmers expressed their willingness to shift from the conventional farming mechanism to Organic farming for gaining stability in terms of the productivity. For designing an effective policy support to the fellow farmers we should concentrate upon the following aspects.

  • Support price[vi] meant for a particular crop should be calculated in accord to the financial involvement of a farmer.
  • Crop Insurance[vii] Mechanism should be devised only after considering the marginal farmers and landless off farm workers.
  • Risk factors, Calamities, Lack of Appropriate knowledge, lack of adequate technical support and various other issues should be handled effectively in collaboration with Core Support agencies, Village Self Governments and Development Organisations.
  • An area specific and effective Crop pattern map should be prepared as an optional initiative for different areas on a war footing for enabling diversified farming practices.
  • Developing and maintaining bio Diversity Park should be ensured in collaboration with Research and Development Organisation of different areas.
  • Exploring different wild varieties of plants and animals of better economic viability with an objective of nurturing and preserving the bio diversity.
  • A dedicated Bio Diversity Research group should be established for working out the strategy of exploring and preserving the diversified ecosystem.
  • Exploring the potentiality of reserve greenery and mapping the resources available in different areas of the states.
  • Linking up different organizations working in the field of Organic farming and natural farming for working out a strategy of the replacement of conventional farming by organic and natural farming.
  • Research and Development in the field of the automation of on farm and off farm initiatives by using small instruments. Exploring simple instruments having potential of minimizing drudgery.
  • Replacing the extensive use of ground water, insecticides, chemical fertilizers for merely increasing productivity should be regulated through policy intervention aiming toward attainment of sustainability in terms of productivity as well as health of the crop field. Extensive use of ground water should be replaced adequately by exploration of water harvesting units and channelization of the rain water in different rural out pockets.
  • Mechanism of Recycling Degradable Waste Materials meant for gaining useful stuff in the form of energy and manure should be   practiced effectively in different rural areas through time tested technology interventions. State support may be extended in the mode of Public Private Participation.

[Focus: Ministry of Agriculture]


Social Standards

               Public recognition of any individual in society indicates the importance of the person in society. Doctors and teachers generally receive higher recognition because of the importance of their services. Services of farmers and artisans are equally important in our society because of their involvement in the productivity. A conscious society can recognize the importance of the members involved in the economy of enterprises. Only conscious members of a family can think about the well beings of a farmer in the society. Such consciousness of people in turn will ensure the social security of the members involved in the economy of enterprises.

        A life process in society, therefore, must not be standardized simply in terms of dress and wealth. It may be standardised properly in terms of efforts and knowledge. Efforts and knowledge are the two important wheels of the collective progress of a society. Standard of living of the rural society may be enhanced by ensuring some of the basic facilities like sanitation, housing, medication, and access to education, access to information etc. For enhanced efforts an expanded Knowledge base will play a definitive role in making a society developed and sustained one.

Efforts of development organisations will be focused adequately toward promoting the enterprise of human society for ensuring progressive growth of farmers and artisans. Promotional activities may be of different kinds…..

  1. Enhancing skills and competence of the work forces involved in the economy of enterprise.
  2. Preserving the beneficial aspects of farmers and artisans.
  3. Ensuring social security of farmers and artisans through promotional schemes of insurance and calamity benefits.
  4. Easy as well as ensured access of farmers and artisans to the basic amenities like food, medication, shelter etc.
  5. Establishing and strengthening Industrial Training Centers of rural out pockets.
  6. Standardisation of lifestyle should be scaled as simple and complicated and also should replace the scale of low and high. In that context life led by a farmer and an artisan (directed toward living within minimum) should be considered economically more viable than compared to a complicated life led by a city dweller.

        Several other initiatives may be enlisted for ensuring the promotion of the functioning of the enterprise through prominent actors like farmers and artisans. For the adequate functioning of the entire society it will ensure the timely and adequate scope of communications. There are several means of communications functioning in the society. Some more can be added for ensuring two way communication between land and laboratory, between patients and doctor, between students and teacher and so on.

[Focus: Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment]

Economy of Congregation:

“Centre of Science for Villages” as a Research and Development Organization

Centre of Science for Villages worked out a common strategy for considering different activities aiming ultimately toward attainment of prosperity for village. Different technology interventions in the identical planning put forth by Dr J. C. Kumarappa aimed toward experimenting the economics of permanence.

Initiatives of CSV as per the recommendations of Dr J. C. Kumarappa

  1. Agriculture & Processing Industries

CSV is promoting organic farming in which local materials, local biodiversity and indigenous knowledge are used for promoting Gram Swaraj (Self Reliant Village economy). By adopting a set of technologies developed by CSV a farmer can manage watershed area, soil, nutrient requirements of crops, pest and diseases etc. It has been seen that productivity of bio-diversified fields is more than a mono-cultured fields. It has been worked out that new technologies have ability to address the needs of even distressed farming communities.

CSV worked out a strategy to process raw materials for preservation, product diversification and value addition and it includes Cereals, Pulses, Oil Seeds, Vegetables, Flowers and Fruits. This exercise is taken up for developing and promoting rural enterprises.

  1. Non Timber Forest Produce

2.1 Bee-Keeping

Bee keeping is doubly useful. It enables better fertilization of the crops giving the farmers a better yield, and at the same time provides honey, a nutritious article of diet. The demonstration centres of Science for Villages, Wardha is keeping a few colonies of honey bees and the work is extended in other villages where bee pasturage is available. A preliminary survey of the area by an expert in bee-keeping was conducted for this purpose. CSV Training and Facilitation centre is able to domesticate the bee hive and also it provides facilities for agriculturists to receive training and to obtain the necessary equipments at moderate rates.

2.2 Gum Collection and Processing

CSV has evolved a non destructive method of extracting gum from forest trees listed below.

  1. Acacia nilotica (Babool)gum
  2. Acacia catechu (Khair)
  3. Anogeisus latifolia (Dhawada)
  4. Sterculia urens (Karu)
  5. Boswellia serrata (Salai)
  6. Workshop

Workshop caters the need of farmers, artisans and village communities by fabricating Bullock Cart, Agriculture Tools like Seed Drill, Hand Weeder, Sickle, Axe, Fork etc.

CSV is Manufacturing and Popularizing Magan Deep [a lantern using Non Edible Oil]. The non-edible oils such as neem (Azardichta indica), karanji (Pongamea pinnata), candle nut, Kardi, mahua (Madhuca indica), rayan (Manilkara hexendra), etc., which are of very little use at present, is being utilized by CSV for lighting purposes. Every effort is directed towards making the villages self-sufficient in lighting. CSV is working for manufacturing and popularizing Magan Deep since inception.

  1. Hand Made Paper Unit:

One central workshop is maintained by CSV, in common with other industries for making the required machinery such as beater, calendar, moulds, screw press, envelopes making machine, etc. Paper makers are trained to use latest type of equipments such as Hollander beater, screw, press, etc. CSV often supply pulp where it is required for specific purpose. Raw materials, such as office records, waste paper, weeds and grasses, available plentifully for paper making is being used by hand-made paper manufacturing units. CSV opines that such raw material should be reserved for handmade paper manufacturing units and should be supplied to them through their co-operative societies at moderate rates.

  1. Pottery:

Facilities are being provided for potters to receive short- term training in all processes, such as grinding clay, mixing it for pottery work and improved modeling, firing and glazing, at convenient placepottery.

CSV promotes production of innovative pottery wares for Housing (Conical Tile and Face Tile), Sanitation (Clay segment), Renewable Energy (Biogas Dome and Burners), Domestic Utility Items (Sheetal Patra of Various shapes and sizes, Water Filters), Irrigation (Emitters).

  1. Housing

CSV has innovative mode of realizing a dream of a villager by evolving a set of technologies for making a home using local resources such as mud and Bamboo. Details of the technologies are available in its publication entitled “Building Dreams in Mud”.

Vault Roof:

Appropriateness of Vault Roof made using conical tiles are as follows

  • Cost effective
  • Use of locally available material, mud as a basic building materialroof
  • Use of energy consuming materials (like metal, steel and cement) is minimized hence these structures are environmentally friendly.
  • High labour intensive technology hence generates employment.
  • Environmental friendly since the houses feel cooler inside the house in summer in hot in winter season.
  • As the mud is main building material, unlike other materials (Concrete and steel), it can be recycled or reused.

Mud Wall:

  • Ordinary mud (80% murum & 20% BC soil or clayey soil) is used to make 230 mm thick walls using tile faced mud blocks of 100 mm thick and filling the masonry joints with cement pointing.mudwall
  • The mud blocks are made using 230 mm X 230 mm wood or steel mould in which facing tile is kept on one side and then it is filled with mud mix by hands
  • The mud block wall is rain proof and rodent proof.
  • This is to be noted that there is no need to press or ram or concrete or add any other binding material in these bocks.
  1. Total Sanitation:

CSV has carried out R & D for recycling spill water (Near Hand Pump and wells); Handling and treating Grey water at its source (Soak Pit); Using Animal waste (Dung and Urine) in scientific way (Bio gas and Composting); Managing Agro waste (Composting and Bio Residue Stove for generating heat energy) etc.

We have also assisted in creating a clean environment by using market waste for generation of energy. CSV has been involved in providing technical guidance to districts and the village which have won the first prize for the “SANT GADGE BABA GRAM SWACCHATA PURASKAR”, instituted by Maharashtra Government (Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation).

Women’s empowerment has been our priority and we not only have provided technical expertise for construction but also trained women and men for construction activities (through Mason Training), so that these structures can be replicated at the local level.

CSV in collaboration with TATA has developed and popularized “Arogya Water Filter”, which are very efficient and can be fabricated at village level using local resources like Ash of Rice husk, Sand, Pebble, nominal amount of Cement. These filters can be fabricated by trained members of SHGs.

CSV is a technology generating and technology transferring institute. In the field of total sanitation CSV has done extensive work. It includes generation of technology and methodology. CSV has developed a series of technologies in the field of solid and liquid waste management in the rural, peri-urban and urban areas. These interventions are enlisted below

  1. Leach Pit Toilet with complete super structures
  2. Spill water recycling Unit
  3. Biogas (Deen Bandhu and Balaji) to handle animal waste
  4. NADEP Tank for making manure from agro waste
  5. Four Pit Vermi Compost tank for recycling organic waste with the help of worms.
  6. Soak pit for handling sludge or brown water
  7. Aangan wadi Toilets for Kindergarten Students.

Future Strategy and Planning

Various activities are planned for implementation during 2017 – 2018.

    1. Cycle Yatras will be organized in villages of Wardha district, highlighting prospects of village economy to distressed farming families.
    2. Formation and continuation of study circles
    3. Publications of popular and thematic articles, journals and books
    4. Networking with Artisans, Farmers and Villagers, VOs, likeminded individuals and Scientific & Research institutions
    5. Extending technical support to new enterprises in villages

List of Annexures…

  1. List of Papers received.
  2. List of Organization whose representative participated in workshop
  3. Exhibition
  4. Photo Gallery
  5. Media Coverage.
  6. List of Participants.

[i]  adjusting, ruling, or governing itself without outside interference; operating or functioning without externally imposed controls or regulations: a self-regulating economy; the self-regulating market.  Thus Nature gradually improves her various breeds through the continued action of a self-regulating mechanism. Eberhard Dennert.

[ii]The Latin root of congregation, which is greg, meaning “flock,” easily becomes congregare, meaning “to gather together,” and finally congregationen, giving the current meaning of “a group.” The meaning took on a religious quality when 16th Century Protestants took it to refer to the church itself, then refining it to mean church members. If you’re not a churchgoer, you might still refer to your friends who show up to watch football as a congregation. A congregation is a large gathering of people, often for the purpose of worship.

The term congregation may refer to:

  • Local church, a Christian organization meeting in a particular place for worship
  • Congregation (Roman Curia), an administrative body of the Roman Catholic Church
  • Congregation (Catholic), a grouping of religious institutes or a religious institute in which only simple vows, not solemn vows, are taken
  • Congregation (Jewish), known in Hebrew as a kehilla
  • Qahal, an Israelite organizational structure often translated as congregation
  • Congregation, often used as an alternate term for a synagogue or its members in a similar vein as a Christian congregation
  • Congregation (university), an assembly of senior members of a university
  • The general audience in a ward in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

[iii]J. C. Kumarappa(born Joseph Chelladurai Cornelius) (4 January 1892 – 30 January 1960) was an Indian economist[1] and a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi. A pioneer of rural economic development theories, Kumarappa is credited for developing economic theories based on Gandhism – a school of economic thought he coined “Gandhian economics.On his return to India Kumarappa published an article on the British tax policy and its exploitation of the Indian economy. He met Gandhi in 1929. At Gandhi’s request he prepared an economic survey of rural Gujarat, which he published as A Survey of Matar Taluka in the Kheda District (1931). He strongly supported Gandhi’s notion of village industries and promoted Village Industries Associations.

[iv] Sustainable Development Goals:


[v] Any modification of a current product that serves to expand the potential market implies that the company is following a strategy of product diversification. The product diversification strategy is different from product development in that it involves creating a new customer base, which by definition expands the market potential of the original product. This is almost always done through brand extensions or new brands, but in some cases the product modification may “create” a new market by creating new uses for the product.

[vi] Minimum Support Price (MSP) is a form of market intervention by the Government of India to insure agricultural producers against any sharp fall in farm prices. The minimum support prices are announced by the Government of India at the beginning of the sowing season for certain crops on the basis of the recommendations of the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP). MSP is price fixed by Government of India to protect the producer – farmers – against excessive fall in price during bumper production years. The minimum support prices are a guarantee price for their produce from the Government. The major objectives are to support the farmers from distress sales and to procure food grains for public distribution. In case the market price for the commodity falls below the announced minimum price due to bumper production and glut in the market, government agencies purchase the entire quantity offered by the farmers at the announced minimum price.

[Source: ]

[vii] Crop Insurance: Agriculture sector is demographically the most significant and broadest economic sector in India. Even a marginal dip in the agricultural production has trickled down effect on the whole economy. The variation in production is directly affected by many unfavorable conditions such as pest attacks, variations in weather conditions such as rainfall, temperature, humidity, etc. Thus, the need of the hour is to secure the yield and yield-based losses. Therefore, HDFC ERGO is offering a comprehensive Yield-based Crop Insurance Policy along with weather insurance which is aimed at covering the production risks faced by the agricultural sector. This policy covers any shortfall in yield resulting due to Natural Fire and lightning, Storm, Hailstorm, cyclone, Typhoon, Tempest, Hurricane, Tornado, Flood, Inundation, Landslide, Drought, Dry spells, Pests/ Diseases, etc.

[Source: ]

N.B. For obtaining the hard copy of the report please contact the office of the Executive Director, CSV, Wardha.